Notes on Erging
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Go to http://www.concept2.com/sranking03/ch_new.asp to create your online logbook. The final step in creating your log is to set your University/Club Standings Affiliation—as you scroll down the list, you will see Hyperfit USA as an option. After each class (or once a week, whenever you have a chance), log your meters to help you keep track of your progress.
Glossary of Terms
Rowers are very proud that they've created their own language in their sport. Here are the terms you'll need to know for our workouts:
Erg - (Ergometer) Rowing machine that simulates rowing in a boat, used as a tool for teaching technique and improving fitness.
Foot Stretchers - Adjustable board in the shell to which the shoes are attached.
Slide - The track on which the seat moves.
Parts of the Stroke
Arms Away - The position at the beginning of the recovery where the body remains in the layback position (shoulders back) while the arms are fully extended away from the body (elbows straight).
Body Over/ Body Prep - The forward lean the rower gets with back and arms on the first half of the recovery.
Catch - The point in the rowing stroke when the blade enters the water.
Drive - Part of the stroke where the rower applies pressure to the oar and the blade travels through the water, knees are pressed down.
Finish- The point in the rowing stroke when the blade is removed from the water, hands close to the body, shoulders towards the bow.
Hands Away - Same as Arms Away.
Layback - The backward lean of the rower's body at the finish.
Leg Drive - Term used for pressing off the foot stretchers with the legs, pushing the knees down; the part of the stroke that generates the majority of the power.
Ratio - The ratio of recovery time to drive time per stroke. The recovery should always be longer than the drive, e.g., 3:1.
Recovery - The part of the rowing stroke from the finish to the catch.
Release - Another word for the finish.
The Stroke - One complete cycle of oar travel, consisting of catch, drive, finish, and recovery.
Top of the Slide - The location of the body at the catch.
Handle Height - The height of the hands on the drive and recovery. Should be parallel and even throughout the boat.
"Hands On" – Command given to grab hold of the boat in preparation for lifting.
"Head in the Boat." - A reminder to mentally focus and keep the eyes forward while rowing.
"Let it Run" - Command given for rowers to stop rowing at Arms Away, allowing the boat to continue traveling through the water.
Rate (or Stoke Rate) - The number of strokes per minute.
"Ready all, row" - Command given by the cox to tell the rowers to begin rowing.
Regatta - An organized series of races among crews.
Rushing the Slide - The act of recovering to the catch too fast, which causes the boat to check; caused by insufficient ratio (ie, 2:1 or 1:1 instead of 3:1).
"Sit Ready" - Command given to instruct the rowers to get into a designated ready position. This command is usually preceded by a group of rowers ("bow 4") followed by a particular position in the stroke, e.g. "at the catch."
Weigh Enough - (way-nuff) Stop. Often heard with "In two, weigh enough" which instructs rowers to stop after the next two strokes.
Proper Rowing Technique
Muscles Used While Rowing (http://www.concept2.com/us/training/tools/musclesused.asp)
The basic rowing action is a coordinated muscle action that requires application of force in a repetitive, maximal and smooth manner. Every large muscle group will contribute to this action. The muscle requirements have been analyzed by Dr. Thomas Mazzone1. The rowing action has been divided into the following sequence:
1) the catch
2) the drive - leg emphasis
- body swing emphasis
- arm pull through emphasis
3) the finish
4) the recovery
The erector spinae muscles of the back are relaxed to allow for trunk flexion, which is provided by the abdominals. The psoas major and minor and the iliacus flex the pelvis and hips. The sartorius muscle rotates the thighs which allows the body to flex between the thighs to obtain maximum reach. The hamstrings and gastrocnemius are contracting while the knees are in flexion. The quadriceps are elongated and stretched, yet the rectus femoris is contributing to hip flexion. The ankles are dorsiflexed by the tibialis anterior.
The elbows are extended by the triceps brachii. The grip on the handle is accomplished by the flexor muscles of the fingers and thumb.
The initial portion of the drive demands maximal power from the legs. The quadriceps extend the knee, and the feet are plantar flexed by the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. A number of stabilizing muscles aid in supporting the lower back.
All the muscles of the shoulder are contracting. These include the supra and infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres major and minor, and the biceps brachii. The scapula is stabilized by the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles.
Body Swing Emphasis
As the knees are finishing their extension, the hip is also extending by the contraction of the gluteus and hamstring muscles. Back extension is occurring by contraction of the erector spinae.
In the upper body, elbow flexion is occurring via the biceps, brachialis, and the brachioradialis muscles.
Arm Pull Through Emphasis
The knees are maximally extended, and the ankles are plantar flexed. In addition, hip and back extension are being completed. The upper body musculature is contracting with high force to finish the drive. The elbow flexors are dominant. The flexor and extensor carpi ulnaris muscles of the forearm contract to stabilize and adduct the wrist. The shoulder is extended and adducted. The upper arm is internally rotated by the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major. The teres minor, posterior deltoid, and long head of the biceps are acting on the shoulder joint. The scapula is rotated downward by the pectoralis minor and then drawn backward by the trapezius and rhomboid muscles.
The knees and ankles remain constant as the hips complete a full extension. The back extensors are continually contracting, and the upper arms are internally rotated by the contracting latissimus dorsi. The triceps are extending the elbows slightly.
The arms are pushed forward and away from the body by the triceps until the elbows reach full extension. The anterior deltoids contract along with the coracobrachialis and biceps, and the upper arms raise slightly as they pass over the extended knees. The abdominals flex the torso, and once the hands have cleared the extended knees, the slide begins its forward motion through ankle dorsiflexion and hip and knee flexion.
1Kinesiology of the rowing stroke, NSCA Journal, Volume 10, Number 2, 1988, Thomas Mazzone, M.D. Wyoming County Community Hospital, Warsaw, New York